Medline: 9116305

Blood 89(7): 2578-2585, 1997.

Stem cell transplantation for secondary acute myeloid leukemia: evaluation of transplantation as initial therapy or following induction chemotherapy.

Anderson JE, Gooley TA, Schoch G, et al.

Abstract:

The purpose of this report is to describe the results of stem cell transplantation as initial treatment for secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Forty-six patients (median age 42 years) with secondary AML (17 therapy-related, 29 myelodysplasia-related) who had not received remission induction chemotherapy underwent allogeneic (n = 43) or syngeneic (n = 3) transplantation. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 24.4%, and the cumulative incidences of relapse and nonrelapse mortality were 31.3% and 44.3%, respectively. Lower peripheral blood blast count was associated with a lower risk of relapse (P = .05) and shorter time from AML diagnosis to transplant was associated with a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality (P = .02) and improved disease-free survival (P = .026). Patients with therapy-related secondary AML tended to have lower disease-free survival (P = .16) and a higher relapse rate (P = .16) than patients whose leukemia was not therapy-related. The results of these 46 previously untreated patients were compared to 20 patients (median age 36 years, 12 therapy-related, 8 myelodysplasia-related) transplanted with chemotherapy-sensitive disease after induction chemotherapy (first complete remission [n = 6], second complete remission [n = 3], first untreated relapse [n = 11]). We found no statistically significant difference in outcome between these 2 groups of patients. These results suggest that prompt transplantation should be considered after diagnosis of secondary AML or, if possible, high-risk myelodysplasia, particularly in patients with low peripheral blast counts. Innovative transplant strategies are needed to reduce the high risks of relapse and nonrelapse mortality seen in this patient population. (23 Refs)


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