Journal of Clinical Oncology 11(5): 839-849, 1993. is available online.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11(5): 839-849, 1993. may be available online for subscribers.
Pullen J, Boyett J, Shuster J, et al.
Prompted by recent demonstrations that all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) had efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia, a Phase I trial of all-trans-RA was conducted to establish the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) before Phase II testing.
Patients and Methods:
Forty patients with a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of malignancy other than leukemia were treated with single daily oral doses of all-trans-RA ranging from 45 mg/m2 to 200 mg/m2. Doses of all-trans-RA were escalated in the next cohort of patients until the MTD was determined if the preceding dose level was not associated with significant toxicity.
Lung cancer was the most common type of tumor included in the study (26 cases) followed by head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (three cases), and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (two cases); other miscellaneous solid tumors were also represented. Toxicities included cheilitis, skin reactions, headache, and nausea and vomiting, as well as transient elevations of liver enzymes and triglyceride levels. Skin toxicities, consisting of erythema with desquamation and paronychia, were considered to be the dose-limiting toxicity, and were observed in two of six patients who received 175 mg/m2/d, and in two of five patients who received 200 mg/m2/d. Of the 30 patients with assessable lesions, response was evaluated in 26 patients and no major objective tumor response was observed. Two patients were able to receive the drug for longer than 1 year without significant toxicities. There was considerable variation in individual patients' peak plasma all-trans-RA levels, and a decrease in the area under the curve of all-trans-RA plasma concentration was observed in all four patients evaluated.
For Phase II study of adult patients, we recommend 150 mg/m2 of all-trans-RA administered orally once a day. However, for better optimization of drug administration schedules, further studies are needed.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn