Medline: 8426209

The abstract Journal of Clinical Oncology 11(2): 314-319, 1993. is available online.

The fulltext Journal of Clinical Oncology 11(2): 314-319, 1993. may be available online for subscribers.

Autologous bone marrow transplant in acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.

Cassileth PA, Andersen J, Lazarus HM, et al.


The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group conducted a prospective study of postremission high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (autoBMT) in a group of uniformly treated adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to evaluate whether intensive, myeloablative therapy in first complete remission (CR) could improve the disease-free survival.

Patients and Methods:
After initial CR was induced by the combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine, patients not eligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) were offered autoBMT. Within a median of 2 months after CR, and without intervening postremission therapy, bone marrow was obtained, purged by exposure to 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), and cryopreserved. High-dose therapy consisted of oral busulfan over 4 days (16 mg/kg total) followed by intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg daily for 4 days. The cryopreserved marrow was then reinfused.

Of the 39 patients scheduled for autoBMT, four relapsed before transplantation. Two of the 35 (6%) transplant patients died of transplant-related complications, and 11 (33%) relapsed a median of 8 months after marrow reinfusion. No relapse has occurred after 24 months posttransplant. With a median follow-up of 31 months, the median disease-free survival period for all 39 patients has not been reached; however, 54% +/- 16% of patients are projected to be alive and disease-free at 3 years.

Long-term, disease-free survival after autoBMT in AML seems to be better than the outcome after conventional-dose postremission therapy and rivals the results of alloBMT.

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