Medline: 1824249

Blood 78(10): 2520-2526, 1991.

A comparative study of two different doses of cytarabine for acute myeloid leukemia: a phase III trial of Cancer and Leukemia Group B.

Dillman RO, Davis RB, Green MR, et al.


Between 1982 and 1986, 326 evaluable patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were randomized to receive cytarabine (Ara-C) at 200 mg/m2 (A200) or 100 mg/m2 (A100) for induction and maintenance therapy. Cycle 1 of induction therapy consisted of 7 days of continuous intravenous (IV) Ara-C and 3 days of i.v. daunorubicin (DNR); cycle 2, if needed, consisted of 5 days of Ara-C and 2 days of DNR. Complete responders (CR) then received monthly subcutaneous (SC) Ara-C at the respective doses (A100 or A200) with 6-thioquanine (6TG) at months 1 and 5, with vincristine (VCR) and prednisone at months 2, 4, 6, and 8, and with DNR at months 3 and 7. Complete response rates were 58% (A100) and 64% (A200) (P = .29). Median survival was 46 weeks (A100) and 38 weeks (A200) (P = .64); 5-year survival was 10% (A200) and 8% (A100). Median time to remission was 6.7 weeks (A200) and 8.1 weeks (A100) (P = .18). Median disease-free survival was 41 weeks (A200) and 44 weeks (A100) (P = .86). Deaths were attributed to therapy-related toxicities in 21% (A200) and 13% (A100) (P = .05). The 5-year survival was 15% for patients with performance status (PS) 0, 8% for PS 1 to 2, and 2% for PS 3 to 4, 18% for patients less than 40 years, 8% for ages 40 to 59, and 3% for age 60 or greater. Stratification of data by age and PS suggested that A200 may improve survival in patients less than 60 years with a good PS 0 (P = .05). This trial does not support the superiority of A200 over A100 in the treatment of AML.

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