Medline: 1694236

Journal of Clinical Oncology 8(7): 1199-1206, 1990.

Postremission chemotherapy for adults with acute myelogenous leukemia: improved survival with high-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin consolidation treatment.

Champlin R, Gajewski J, Nimer S, et al.

Abstract:

Results of postremission chemotherapy for adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were assessed in two sequential prospective studies involving similar induction therapy and two courses of intensive consolidation treatment. Fifty-six patients achieving remission on the acute leukemia protocol (ALP3) study received high-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin as course one and standard-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin as course two. Results are compared with forty-six patients achieving remission on the ALP2 study who received azacitidine and doxorubicin as consolidation course one and standard-dose cytarabine, daunorubicin, and thioguanine as course two. The ALP3 regimen resulted in a significantly improved 5-year disease-free survival of 32% +/- 19% versus 20% +/- 11% for the ALP2 study (P = .03). Survival from remission was also improved, 40% +/- 14% versus 24% +/- 12% (P less than .01). Favorable prognostic factors for disease-free survival included receiving the ALP3 treatment regimen, absence of a prior preleukemic syndrome, and female sex. These factors and younger patient age were significant for survival following first chemotherapy and survival after achieving remission. Six of 34 patients who relapsed after receiving the ALP3 regimen successfully achieved prolonged second remissions with high-dose cytarabine-based chemotherapy and/or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Overall survival for adults less than or equal to 45 years of age was 58% +/- 19% with the ALP3 postremission chemotherapy regimen, comparable to most studies of BMT for AML in first remission. Actuarial 5-year survival for ALP3 patients greater than 60 years of age was 18% +/- 20% with no improvement compared with ALP2.


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