International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 11(7): 1379-1393, 1985.
Gunderson LL, Russell AH, Llewellyn HJ et al.
For colorectal cancer, the adjuvant radiation dose levels required to achieve a high incidence of local control closely parallel the radiation tolerance of small bowel (4500-5000 rad), and for patients with partially resected or unresected disease, the dose levels exceed tolerance (6000-7000 rad). Therefore, both the surgeon and the radiation oncologist should use techniques that localize tumor volumes and decrease the amount of small intestine within the irradiation field. Surgical options include pelvic reconstruction (reperitonealization, omental flaps, retroversion of uterus, etc.) and clip placement. Radiation options include the use of radiographs to define small bowel location and mobility combined with treatment techniques using multiple fields, bladder distention, shrinking or boost fields, and/or patient position changes (prone, decubitus, etc.). When both specialties interact in optimum fashion, local control can be increased with minimal risks to achieve a suitable therapeutic ratio.
Rheinische Friedrich- Wilhelms- Universität Bonn