Medline: 10986059

The abstract Journal of Clinical Oncology 18(18): 3262-3272, 2000. is available online.

The fulltext Journal of Clinical Oncology 18(18): 3262-3272, 2000. may be available online for subscribers.

Osteonecrosis as a complication of treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: a report from the Children's Cancer Group.

Mattano LA Jr, Sather HN, Trigg ME, et al.

Abstract:

Purpose:
To determine the incidence, risk factors, and morbidity for osteonecrosis (ON) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with intensive chemotherapy including multiple, prolonged courses of corticosteroid.

Patients and Methods:
The occurrence of symptomatic ON was investigated retrospectively in 1, 409 children ages 1 to 20 years old receiving therapy for high-risk ALL on Children's Cancer Group (CCG) protocol CCG-1882.

Results:
ON was diagnosed in 111 patients (9.3% +/- 0.9%, 3-year life-table incidence). The incidence was higher for older children (> or = 10 years: 14.2% +/- 1.3% v < 10 years: 0.9% +/- 0.4%; P: <.0001), especially females 10 to 15 years old and males 16 to 20 years old (19.2% +/- 2.3% and 20.7% +/- 4.7%, respectively). In patients 10 to 20 years old, the incidence of ON was higher for females versus males (17.4% +/- 2.1% v 11.7% +/- 1.6%, respectively; P: =.03) and for patients randomized to receive two 21-day dexamethasone courses versus one course (23.2% +/- 4.8% v 16.4% +/- 4.3%, respectively; P: =.27). Among ethnic groups, whites had the highest incidence and blacks the lowest, with other groups intermediate (16.7% +/- 1.4% v 3.3% +/- 2.3% v 6.7% +/- 2.2%, respectively; P: =.003). There was no difference in event-free survival in patients with or without ON. ON was diagnosed within 3 years of starting ALL therapy in all but one patient, involved weight-bearing joint(s) in 94% of patients, and was multifocal in 74% of patients. Symptoms of pain and/or immobility were chronic in 84% of patients, with 24% having undergone an orthopedic procedure and an additional 15% considered candidates for surgery in the future.

Conclusion:
Children ages 10 to 20 years who receive intensive ALL therapy, including multiple courses of corticosteroid, are at significant risk for developing ON.


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